Declaration of Principles and State Policies
24. The State recognizes the vital role
of communication and information in nation-building
Bill of Rights
3 (1). The privacy of communication and correspondence
shall be inviolable except
upon lawful order of the court, or when public
safety or order requires otherwise as prescribed
(2) Any evidence obtained in violation of
this or the preceding section shall be inadmissible
for any purpose in any proceeding.
4. No law shall be passed abridging the freedom
of speech, of expression, or of the press,
or the right of the people peaceably to assemble
and petition the government for redress of
7. The right of the people to information
on matters of public concern shall be recognized.
Access to official records, and to documents,
and papers pertaining to official acts, transaction,
or decisions, as well as to government research
data used as basis for policy development,
shall be afforded the citizen, subject to
such limitations as may be provided by law.
16. (4) Each House shall also keep a Journal
of its proceedings, and from time to time
publish the same, excepting such parts as
may, in its judgment, affect national security;
and the yeas and nays on any question shall,
at the request of one-fifth of the Members
present, be entered in the Journal.
House shall also keep a Record of its proceeding.
20. The records and books of accounts of the
Congress shall be preserved and be open to
public in accordance with law, and such books
shall be audited by the Commission on Audit
which shall publish annually an itemized list
of amount paid to and expenses incurred for
C. The Commission
4. The Commission may, during the election
period, supervise or regulate the enjoyment
or utilization of all franchises or permits
for the operation of transportation and other
public utilities, media of communication or
information, all grants, special privileges,
or concessions granted by the Government or
any subdivision, agency, or instrumentally
thereof, including any government-owned or
controlled corporation or its subsidiary.
Such supervision or regulation shall aim to
ensure equal opportunity, time, and space,
and the right to reply, including reasonable,
equal rates therefore, for public information
campaigns and forums among candidates in connection
with the objective of holding free, orderly,
honest, peaceful, and credible elections.
Accountability of Public Officers
13. The Office of the Ombudsman shall have
the following powers, functions, and duties:
Publicize matters covered by its investigation
when circumstances so warrant and with due
National Economy and Patrimony
11. No franchise, certificate, or any other
form of authorization for the operation of
a public utility shall be granted except to
citizens of the Philippines or to corporations
or associations organized under the laws of
the Philippines at least sixty per centum
of whose capital is owned by such citizens,
nor shall such franchise, certificate, or
authorization be exclusive in character or
for a longer period than fifty years. Neither
shall any such franchise or right be granted
except under the condition that is shall be
subject to amendment, alteration, or repeal
by the Congress when the common good so requires.
The State shall encourage equity participation
in public utilities by the general public.
The participation of foreign investors in
the governing body of any public utility enterprise
shall be limited to their proportionate share
in its capital, and all the executive and
managing officers of such corporation or association
must be citizens of the Philippines.
14. The sustained development of a reservoir
of national talents consisting of Filipino
scientists, entrepreneurs, professionals,
managers, high-level technical manpower and
skilled workers and craftsmen in all fields
shall promoted by the State. The State shall
encourage appropriate technology and regulate
its transfer for the national benefit.
The practice of all professions
in the Philippines shall be limited to Filipino
citizens, save in cases prescribed by law.
17. In times of national emergency, when the
public interest so requires, the State may,
during the emergency and under reasonable
terms prescribed by it, temporarily take over
or direct the operation of any privately owned
public utility or business affected with public
18. The State may, in the interest of national
welfare of defense, establish and operate
vital industries and, upon payment of just
compensation, transfer to public ownership
utilities and other private enterprises to
be operated by the government.
Education, Science, and Technology, Arts,
Culture, and Sports
6. The national language of the Philippines
is Filipino. As it evolves, it shall be further
developed and enriched on the basis of existing
Philippine and other languages.
Subject to provisions of
law and as the Congress may deem appropriate,
the Government shall take steps to initiate
and sustain the use of Filipino as medium
of official communication and as language
of instruction in the educational system.
7. For purposes of communication and instruction,
the official languages of the Philippines
are Filipino and, until otherwise provided
by a law, English.
The regional languages are
the auxiliary official languages in the regions
and shall serve as auxiliary media of instruction
Spanish and Arabic shall
be promoted on a voluntary and optional basis.
Arts and Culture
14. The State shall foster the preservation,
enrichment, and dynamic evolution of a Filipino
national culture based on the principle of
unity in diversity in a climate of free artistic
and intellectual expression.
15. Arts and letters shall enjoy the patronage
of the State. The State shall conserve, promote,
and popularize the nation’s historical
and cultural heritage and resources, as well
as artistic creations.
10. The State shall provide the policy environment
for the full development of Filipino capability
and the emergence of communication structures
suitable to the needs and aspirations of the
nation and the balanced flow of information
into, out of, and across the country, in accordance
with a policy that respects the freedom of
speech and of the press.
11. (1) The ownership and management of mass
media shall be limited to citizens of the
Philippines, or to corporations, cooperatives
or associations, wholly-owned and managed
by such citizens.
Congress shall regulate or prohibit monopolies
in commercial mass media when the public interest
so requires. No combinations in restraint
of trade or unfair competition therein shall
The advertising industry is impressed with
public interest, and shall be regulated by
law for the protection of consumers and the
promotion of the general welfare.
Filipino citizens or corporations or associations
at least seven per centum of the capital of
which is owned by such citizens shall be allowed
to engage in the advertising industry.
participation of foreign investors in the
governing body of entities in such industry
shall be limited to their proportionate share
in the capital thereof, and all the executive
and managing officers of such entities must
be citizens of the Philippines.
23. Advertising entities affected by paragraph
(2), Sections 11 of Article XVI of this Constitution
shall have five years from its ratification
to comply on a graduated and proportionate
basis with the minimum Filipino ownership